Evaluation of the Health, Safety, Environment and Waste (HSE&W) Management Practises within Production Facilities in Nigeria

A Case Study of some Companies in Lagos and Ogun States

By Olubukola Betty Olatoye
October 2011

The Author is the Technical Director of Global Safety, Environmental and Waste Consultants (GSEWC), and the Principal Consultant of Berthys Easy Everyday Konsult (BEEK). → See also:

Abstract
This report evaluated the HSE and Waste Management culture of some companies within Lagos and Ogun State. Using simple random sampling technique, thirteen (13) Environmental reports of these companies were perused and reviewed. Estimation and descriptive statistics were employed in analysing the data collated from the reports’ review. Parameters analysed are; Good Housekeeping (GHK), Use of PPEs; Provision and Enforcement, Waste Management, Waste Handling, Installation of Pollution Abatement Equipment to Protect the Work Environment, Installation of Pollution Abatement Equipment to Protect the Immediate Facility Environment, Availability of Medical Facilities for Workers’ Health Protection, Availability of Contingency Plan, Availability of Emergency Response Equipment, HSE Policy Existence in Facility, Information Dissemination and Posters Provision, Conducting Training for Workers and Other Environmental Issues. Findings showed that using the maximum total score of 65, only 6 facilities (UNTL.(B), Cybele Cosmetics (C), EPPlc. (D), SVNL (E), DCC Telecoms (I) & Purechem (K)), (which is less than half of the facilities under review) had total scores above the average (32.5). Installation of pollution abatement equipment to protect the work environment and availability of medical facilities for workers’ health protection were two parameters that carried highest cumulative total forty (40), when all the values for the facilities were added, it can be inferred from this that most facility managers give high priority to personnel welfare. HSE policy existence in the facilities carried the lowest cumulative total seventeen (17), it can be inferred that most facility managers do not have a legally binding document within the facility, a legally binding document that can be used to hold them liable in court of law or one that can be used as a defense against liability. Out of the 13 parameters analysed within the 13 facilities under review, six did not have a cumulative total of up to half of the maximum cumulative total level (65). Major benefits from managing HSE issues appropriately within a facility are uninterrupted operations, optimal gain, reduced operational cost, avoidance of sanctions by government agencies and better corporate image of company. Recommendations for better policy incorporation in this report include provision of enabling environment to be able incorporate many HSE aspects into company programs through proper grace period for new facilities, better information dissemination by government agencies and other stakeholders and provision of incentives as compensation to companies where better HSE management has been achieved, which will be extended to individual workers in facilities.

Introduction

The effort towards proper HSE Management in the industries within the Lagos and Ogun localities are the main reason for this project, using appropriate tools as shall be enumerated under this chapter.

According to the information posted on the website on environmental sustainability, Scientific methods established as a scientific process will be used to answer questions or solve problems.

According to the manual prepared by NISP for SHELL contractors training in 2003, Economic improvements of so many countries have been linked with Technological Innovations, especially those that aided the advancement of production activities, which has ultimately culminated to the exponentially increased economic in many countries all over the world (NISP Manual, 2003).

The alleviation of various difficult domestic and industrial activities have encouraged the global acceptance of most of these technological innovations, however, global environment degradation, have increased due to the non-adoption of Cleaner Production Technology (CPT) as well as the generation of various categories of wastes along with the varieties of Industrial useful products, plus the improper management of the by-products, some of which are either hazardous or non-hazardous.

Most economic activities depend on the environment. The manufacturing sector is a major section of the economic environment that depends and taps so much from the Environment. Undoubtedly, the industrial sector has contributed greatly to the growth of the world’s economy it has also (in the process of its development) affected the foundation that supports its existence, such that some life sustaining elements are being massively impacted negatively  The impact of human activities on the Environment is alarming and causing serious concern in terms of the degradation of land, the pollution of the local and global atmosphere and the depletion of natural and manmade resources.

The plan to ameliorate the resulting impact of improperly managed waste has informed the need to put mitigation measures in place at global and local levels, to protect the working and living environment. In other to curtail further alteration of this our God given heritage; the environment, and also to protect the Health and Safety of people in their living and working environment, all the uncontrolled anthropogenic activities going-on within the environment, especially that of Industrial facilities, must be mitigated to be able to achieve Sustainable development.

Though it is unreasonable to expect a totally unpolluted environment, and to hold the view that the natural resources have unlimited capacity, the equilibrium ethic view of a balance between total development and absolute preservation should be upheld (Enger and Smith, 1992). It may not be possible to stop man from performing his different activities in an environment, the onus however lies on him to effectively control the nuisance emanating from such activities (Uchegbu, 2002).

It has also been agreed that in future, continued economic development and better living standards will depend on the production technology and processes that have incorporated proper HSE and Waste management issues into the operational procedures, which will include sound resource management, an essential part of developmental planning.

The concept of HSE was developed to alleviate the negative aspect of Technological Innovations that have been neglected in the past, especially in the Industrial Sector. The implication of adopting Technological Innovation (TI) is enormous, it has been linked to both local and global economic improvement, advancement and social development. However, TIs use and implementation, which leads to Technological Advancement, brought along the negative aspects in form of Pollution, Health, Safety, Environment andSecurity problems in different dimensions. It has been established now that HSE management in the workplace and indeed all walks of life is synonymous with business (OECD, 2008). Environmental protection as well as health and safety at work must thus be ensured at all times. Thus a compilation of workplace rules and regulations, guidelines and other control information in a management system policy are usually prepared and made available to all stakeholders especially the workers.

Legal and Adminstrative Framework on HSE

This section will discuss the legal and administrative framework of HSE both globally and locally.

International Policies on Health, Safety, Environment and Waste

At the Global level, the need to avert this looming catastrophe necessitated the presentation for ratification of several international agreements some of which Nigerian has become signatories to, notable amongst them are:

National Policy on Environment (1999 Revised)

To achieve sustainable development in Nigeria, Nigeria has enunciated a National Policy on the Environment among the notable points are to:

The purpose of a legal framework as an integral part of a National Environmental Policy is to consolidate, strengthen and provide an extensive legislation for HSE protection and improvement in all ramifications, whilst also providing for the effective implementation and enforcement procedures.

National Regulations

Federal Ministry of Environment (Former FEPA) Regulations and Decrees Relating to Environmental Protection in Nigeria

In exercising of the powers conferred on FMEnv by Section 37 of the FEPA Act Cap.131 (Same as Decree 58 of 1988), FMEnv have to date made the following Regulations:

  1. S.I.8 of 1991 National Effluent Limitations Official Gazette Fed. Rep. Nigeria. No, 42 vol. 78 20th August, 1991.
  2. S.I.9 of 1991 Pollution Abatement in Industries Generating Wastes Official Gazette Fed. Rep. Nig. No. 42 Vol. 78, 20th August, 1991.
  3. S.I.15 of 1991 Management of Hazardous and Solid Wastes Official Gazette Fed. Rep. Nig. No. 102 Vol. 78, 31st December, 1991.
  4. Environmental Impact Assessment Decree No. 86 of 1992.
  5. Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria, 1991.
  6. The factories act of 1990 etc.

State governments have also contributed in alleviating the effect of industrialization on the workforce, workplace, environment and public health. Most of them have state legislations to do this. The Lagos state government is not left out in this. Since this report is specifically on facilities within the Lagos State metropolis, the various Lagos State Government Edicts and Laws on the Environment are enumerated.

Lagos State Government Edicts and Laws on the Environment

The Lagos state government is taking a proactive lead in general public health management issues and various monitoring is being undertaken by agencies. Lagos State legislations, are primarily essential for Environmental protection and are aimed at integrating the uncoordinated regulations and bye-laws on Environmental Management and by so doing resolve decisively, issues including pollution control, hazardous waste disposal, and conservation of water resources and protection of biodiversity are considered hereunder.

The legal instruments put in place by Lagos State for Environmental protection include:

OGEPA EDICT, 1995

The Ogun State edict was signed into law in 1995, responsibility, functions and prohibition acts were promulgated in it in addition to penalties for flouting the various aspects of the act.

Relevant agency functions include:

  1. Monitoring and control of any form of environmental degradation that may result from agricultural, industrial and government operations.
  2. Monitoring and control of generated wastes disposal within the state.
  3. Monitoring and control of surface, underground and potable water sources, air, land and soil contamination within the state, in other to determine the pollution level or collect baseline data.
  4. Collaboration with all tires of government, other ministries, department and agencies as well as research agencies on environmental protection issues.

To be able to carry-out this functions effectively, the edict empowers the agency to among other things;

Other relevant national regulations guiding industrial development activities in Nigeria are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 · Summary of Relevant National Environment Regulations
Regulation Year Adopted
1 Explosives Regulations, Cap 117, LFN1956
2 Federal Environment Protection Agency Act 1988, Cap. 131, Vol. IX p.63031988
3 Factory Act1990
4 National Environmental Protection Policy (Effluent Limitation) Regulations1991
5 National Environmental Protection Policy (Pollution and Abatement in Industries in Facilities Producing Waste) Regulations1991
6 National Environmental Protection (Management of Solid and Hazardous Wastes) Regulations1991
7 Environmental Impact Assessment Act (Decree No. 86)1992
8 Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control in Nigeria1991
9 National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA)2007
10 National Environmental Policy1989

Some of the relevant international regulations and conventions guiding industrial development activities in Nigeria and to which Nigeria is signatory are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2 · Summary of Relevant Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAS International Conventions and Protocols)
Convention Year Adopted
1 Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone1958
2 African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources1968
3 Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG)1972
4 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and National Heritage (World Heritage Convention)1972
5 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. Note: The Convention was amended in 19921972
6 Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region1981
7 Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution in Cases of Emergency in the West and Central African Region1981
8 Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer1985
9 Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Note: The Protocol was amended for the first time on 29th June 1990 in London. A second set of amendments was adopted in Copenhagen in November 1992; these entered into force in 1994.1987
10 Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal of 1989 (Basel Convention)1989
11 Framework Convention on Climate Change1992
12 Convention on Biological Diversity1994
13 World Bank Environment Assessment Source Books1998
14 IFC Environmental Guidelines for Borrowers2000

FACTORIES ACT, 1990

In addition to the Federal Ministry of Environment Laws/regulations as well as that of the State, the Federal Minister of Labour and Productivity through the Factories Act of 1990, prescribed a number of measures to be put in place with regard to the Health, Safety and general Welfare of workers in  manufacturing outfits in Nigeria.

HSE Policy Formulation

The need for HSE policy formulation and documentation is to ensure that work is being carried out in a way that will maintain healthy and safe working practices, prevent risks of injuries to the workforce. The overall responsibility for Health, Safety & Environment management rests mainly on the top management of a company, however, all individual employees have the important responsibility of ensuring that HSE issues are treated accordingly and must participate in the implementation of the company’s policy. Appropriate training, supervision and information are usually provided to encourage and enable to carryout their duties safely. Regular Inspection and monitoring of the activities is undertaken and accidents or incidents are investigated promptly so that appropriate action is taken to prevent reoccurrence.

Unsafe work practices by an individual can often lead to accidents even in safe working environment. The goal of HSE policy formulation by companies is to eliminate both unsafe working condition and unsafe work practices as well as to comply with all regulations governing HSE on site, to take expedient actions to correct or isolate unsafe conditions or work practices, to promote HSE awareness, to hold each employee accountable for their individual responsibility for HSE, to assure that employees can accomplish the safe completion of assigned tasks (Nigeria Health Policy Draft, 2005).

Prompt accident notification investigation and reporting, establishment and maintaining of appropriate working environment, protection of people, property, equipment and material from all incidents and accidents, protection of the environment by removing all hazardous wastes and by proper housekeeping, formation of an HSE committee within each working location setting and assuring standards, prevention of negligence in the matter of HSE or contribution to accident through personnel neglect, management commitment to achieving and sustaining "ZERO ACCIDENT TOLERANCE" through continues improvement practices are all issues that must be planned.

The success of the policy requires all levels of personnel, from Management and employees, to become totally supportive and to develop a thorough understanding of HSE Regulation or procedure as it pertains to their respective jobs. Responsibilities are thus assigned to accomplish the corporate objective.

HSE Representative, authority and control, Work Stoppage, Assessment Program, HSE violations, Hazard Recognition, Hazard Communication, Incident Investigation and Reporting, Unsafe Acts and Conditions, HSE Penalties, Instruction and Training, Fire Prevention & Fire Fighting Plan, Noise Control, work site clothing requirements, Personal Protective Equipment, safe, Jobsite Transportation Rules, Monthly Inspection Program, Housekeeping issues, demarcated Lunch / Break Areas, non-use or indulgence on site, Medical facilities and First AID Box availability, Security,  compliance to Regulatory requirements, Emergency Appliances management, Safe Driving skill & Vehicle Check program, general Safe Operations, Performance Indicators etc. are topics that must be treated during HSE Planning (Nigeria Health Policy Draft, 2005).

Past Research Works done on HSE

According to the Center for Corporate Accountability (CCA) an International company, promoting workers and Public Safety website publication, Government’s Safety Policies was found to be “inconsistent with research”, this is based on the premise that the Central planks of the Government/Health and Safety Commission’s current health and safety strategy are "inconsistent with the national and internationally published research on the most effective strategies to improve workers and public safety”.

The report, "Making Companies Safe: What Works?" raises serious questions about the Government’s claimed commitment to pursue policies that are ‘evidence-based’.

The 120 page report was published on Wednesday, 15 September 2004, where it was reported that in year 2003, 235 workers and 95 members of the public died in premises regulated by both the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or Local Authorities, while up to 29,500 workers suffered major injuries. The purpose of the report was to consider whether published research supported two recent significant shifts in Government/HSC policy. The report’s conclusions showed those of the selected committee on Work and Pensions, which stated that the HSE should double the number of inspectors and increase its enforcement activities.

Summary of Death Levels in Different Continents

According to the publication on their website, the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated that 345,000 workers died in workplace incidences in 2002 around the world. The publication also gave the statistical data on the numbers of deaths that the governments of each country provided to the ILO.

The numbers of deaths included employees, the self employed and sole traders (i.e. farmers) who have died on land, at sea or in the air. It included work-related transport incidents (though not work-related commuting incidents). It does not include members of the public who have died from work-related incidents.

The ILO has done household studies in different countries in different continents to assists in making estimates of countries with similarities in activities and size. These continental statistical summaries were said to be based on both statistics and other information from as many different sources as was available, which could be regarded to be as reliable as possible, in order to calculate the values of new estimation of number of work-related mortality. Statistical assumptions were also sometimes used, which could be based on studies or statistical information provided by officials of countries where employment and/or the economic structure are about similar" (ILO, 2010).

The presented ILO figures are based on latest available statistics (from those member States that have reported them properly), and is mostly for year 2001. The reason why there is often such a difference between the numbers reported by a country and the numbers of deaths estimated by the ILO is because

  1. The obligations upon employers and others to report deaths to the authorities do not cover most of the work-force and
  2. There is serious under-reporting by employers and others to the authorities.

Hazard Incidences Around the World

According to the Hazards special report published in November 2009, about Dangerous Lead (Pb), the Health and Safety Executives (HSE) knows the UK Lead exposure standard can kill but refuses to act. Thousands of UK workers are being exposed to various high levels of lead (Pb) that can cause chronic health problems. HSE, sometimes know about it and admits that the organization does not have any intension of doing anything presently about it.

Hazards.org published up to 108 different hazard incidences round the world some of the topics are presented below:

Case Studies

Establishing the business case for investing in stress prevention and evaluating their impacts on sickness absence levels, this case study outlines the business benefits attained by Somerset County Council from undertaking a process of stress risk assessment and intervention.

Psychosocial risk factors in Call Centres
This research suggests that working as a call hander is more stressful than many other jobs. It outlines the key stressors present in call-centre environments, and proposes measures to eliminate or reduce the impact of these stressors.
Beacons of Excellence in Stress Prevention
The report outlines criteria for best practice in stress prevention. These criteria were used to identify organisations that could be considered examples of best practice in various aspects of stress prevention.
Best Practice in Rehabilitating Employees Following Absence due to work related stress
The report provides examples of how to encourage employees to return to work and to prevent a reoccurrence of their initial stress. The case studies in this report cover England, Scotland and Wales, and some specific advice for small and medium sized companies.
The Whitehall II Study: Work, environment, alcohol consumption and ill health
This report demonstrates the links between psychosocial risk factors and subsequent ill health. The findings are based on the longitudinal Whitehall II study of 10,000 British Civil Servants.
Review of existing supporting scientific knowledge to underpin standards of good practice for key work related stressors: phase 1
This report has informed the development of HSE’s draft Management Standards for stress by identifying evidence that explains the mechanisms by which workplace factors (such as poorly designed/managed workload, lack of appropriate support) lead to stress.
Interventions to control stress at work in hospital staff
This Report provides examples of how sources of work stress were identified and managed in a number of hospital settings. The evidence from these case studies demonstrates that that risk management can be a powerful tool for dealing with sources of work stress.
Effective team-working: reducing the psychosocial risks
This report proposes a model for understanding team working and its impact on employee mental health.
Organisational interventions for work stress - A risk management approach
This report presents a risk management approach to the reduction of work stress, describing its origins, strategies, processes and procedures. It illustrates these through six organisational case studies.

Some Completed Research ProjectsRelated to HSE and Waste

  1. The Development of a Practical Method for the Exposure Assessment of Risks to Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders
    Contractor: Robens Centre for Health Ergonomics, University of Surrey
  2. A Method for Assessing the Risks Arising from Fatigue
    Contractor: Defence Research Agency - Centre for Human Sciences (DERA-CHS), Dr C MacKay
  3. The Nigerian Federal and State Ministries of Health Survey
    The federal and state health ministries usually undertake Risk Assessment Survey of Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) some of the findings are presented here.

On the 27th to 31st May, 2002, a Five (5) day national Risk Assessment Survey was carried out in the Coal, Mining, Battery, Quarry and Farm/Palm-oil mill industries in Enugu, Ebonyin and Imo States.

The aim of the project included attaining reduction in morbidity and mortality rates among workers in these industrial sectors by 25%, raising HSE information awareness to a higher percentage amongst workers exposed to work related health hazards thus empowering the workforce with knowledge on how to protect themselves and demand their protection from employers, reduction in employers and employees medical bills and increased productivity, which will boost the nation’s economy generally.

Findings

Quarry site
25 workers were found on site, 17 were females, working hour was usually 10hours. Hazards included accidental cuts,  crushing of fingers or toes while attempting to break stones, silica inhalation, which can lead to silicosis, general body pain due to nature of job and accidental falls that may lead to skin cuts and bone fracture or breakages. No safety control measures were found on site and no safety apparels provided for workers. Ten workers were randomly picked and their health status screened, two women who were observed to be in bad health were advised to go to the nearest health centre for further treatment. Health education and information were provided to workers on the need to wear personal protective devices to reduce their exposure to hazards. Residents around the site could be exposed to dust inhalation danger.
Coal, Lead Mining and Battery sites
Many workers of up to 1,300 workers were reported to be staff of the one of the companies, hazards included exposure to respirable coal mine dusts that could cause pneumoconiosis and contribute to the occurrence of chronic airways diseases like chronic bronchitis and emphysema, long period of exposure to noise levels beyond acceptable limit is also a problem, many workers are without Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs), no medical or canteen facilities were also found on the site. Traces of radio-active elements may be mined and thus expose workers and those around the site to radioactive related ailments and diseases. Reptiles from bushes around could inflict injuries to workers through bites and other forms of attacks, Anemia, fatigue and poisoning due to exposure to lead may also occur. A clinic was found on the site for workers and villagers to receive treatment, workers also enjoy free lunch and there were some PPEs available for workers use.
Farm and Palm-oil Milling site
Up to 2,000 workers were found on the site, 55% were males, 45% were females two shifts system was being operated and overtime period does not exceed 4hours. Associated hazards included cuts, falls from slippery floors, falls from palm tree top, burns from milling process, elevated noise level, which could induce hearing loss, snake bite from farm plantation, allergic reactions and dermatitis from contacts. No PPEs were seen worn by workers and no trained first aiders or first aid boxes were seen on site. No safety officer was identified nor is there a safety committee on site in addition no safety posters were seen within and around the site. The company however, has an in-house clinic manned by two (2) registered Nurses, they attend to sick workers regularly. The company has good record and housekeeping systems. The company has a canteen that caters for the meals of workers, though not subsidized, the canteen was however, found not to be in good environmental condition, the general outlook was found to be poor and no water supply and storage facility was found to be poor and handler are not properly trained, they do not have requisite qualification.

The following conclusions were reached by the team:

The health status survey on respiratory disorders carried out on Miners and Quarry workers showed that many of them have low respiratory capacity than those in the administrative work, this could be attributed to accumulated effect of inhalation of respirable particles e.g. coal dusts, silica dusts etc. some of the workers with bad habits of smoking or sniffing also had low respiratory capacity. Workers in most of the companies visited were not provided with PPEs and where available the uses were not enforced thus workers were not using them. Health and safety education need to be carried out among workers. Workers in the informal sectors are exposed to more hazards due to the lack of awareness of the danger inherent in their jobs. Most facilities does not have medical, safety or welfare facilities. Health and safety of the informal sector should be considered better (Lagos State Ministry of Health, 2002).

Research Design

This study adopted descriptive research method, where existing information about the physical observations within the facility, recent interview, questioning and collection of official company documents will all be presented.

Study Area

Lagos and Ogun states are found within the southwestern area of Nigeria, on the West Coast of Africa, Lagos occupies an area of 3,577 square kilometer, and about 0.4% of the total land area of Nigeria. This elongated state extends to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean with over 180km along the Republic of Benin on the west and Ogun State on the east. It is on approximate latitude 6°20’ North to 6°40’ North, and from longitude 2°45’ East to 4°20’ East, while Oguns is on  latitude 6°22’ North to 6°49’ North, and from longitude 3°79’ East to 7°80’ East of its total length.

Though very small, Lagos is one of the most densely populated states in the country as an estimated population of over 13million inhabitants according to the census record conducted by the Lagos state government. About 80 percent of the population lives within the metropolitan Lagos, giving the state number one status in terms of urbanization in Nigeria. Ogun State on the other hand is not so densely populated, however, due to its locational proximity to Lagos state, a spill over into so many towns and cities of Ogun state in occurring thus, increasing the urbanization and population of the state.

Companies located in various parts of the states metropolis were selected for this research work. The HSE management practices within these companies were investigated by perusing the Environmental Assessment or Environmental Audit reports of the facilities where majority of the information about HSE management of the companies were obtained. The findings will be presented in the next chapter.

Sampling Methodology

This was done through simple random selection technique, without prejudice, to ensure that the data gathered represent true opinion and practices found within the facility. Using random sampling, available reports were picked to represent varieties of companies; Pharmaceutical, Plastic, Steel, Agricultural, Telecommunications, Chemicals, Foam, Textiles companies.

Data Collection Method

Primary and secondary sources were used for the data gathering. The primary data were collected through the randomly sourced existing environmental reports of these facilities and document analysis. The Secondary Data were collected using information mainly from Published Textbooks, Reports, Journals, Articles on Magazines, Newspapers, Maps, Pictures, Internet pasted information, Workshops, Summits and Conference Presentations as prescribed in Olayinka and Oriaku, 2006.

Data Analysis Method

The generated data was analysed and presented using figures, tables, percentages and other parametric and non-parametric statistical tools.
The presented information are extracts from the Environmental Reports of these facilities on-the-job. With the aim and objective of giving information that will aid in correcting all forms of bad practices with the operational bases of various companies and ensuring that facility activities are geared towards sustainable development at all times. Most of the information that used are already presented to the monitoring agencies and as such is already a public document that can be referenced.

Data Presentation and Analysis

Introduction

This section will elaborate the various measurements of the various HSE components data gathered from perusing the Environmental Implication Studies (EIS), Environmental Assessment (EA) or Environmental Audit Report (EAR) of facilities and highlight the relevant evaluations and deductions from the result presented.

Data Presentation

The following facilities’ reports were perused and analysed:

  1. BHOJRAJ Ind. Ltd. Lagos, EA 2009
  2. UNTL, Ikorodu, Lagos 2009 EAR
  3. CYBELE EAR, Lagos 2009
  4. EGBIN Power Plant, Lagos, EAR 2009
  5. STRIDES VITAL NIG. LTD. (SVNL) EA, Ikeja, Lagos 2009
  6. HONGXING Steel Co. Ltd. Amuwo-odofin, Lagos EA, 2009
  7. BLOWFISH Hotel Ltd. V.I., Lagos, EA 2010
  8. NOSTRUM Pharmaceutical Ltd. Ojota, Lagos, EA, 2009
  9. DCC TELECOMMUNICATION LTD. V.I. Lagos, EA, 2010
  10. ANIMAL CARE SERVICES KONSULT (NIG.) LTD.  Ogere, Ogun EAR 2010
  11. PURE-CHEMICAL PRODUCTION LTD., Veepee av. Ogun, EAR, 2010
  12. ACIC MATRESS FOAM PRODUCTION COMPANY EAR, Abeokuta Ogun, EAR 2010
  13. MANAL Nig. Ltd. Warewa, along Lagos/Ibadan express rd. Ogun State EIS, 2010.

These Facilities’ Reports will be analysed using the following HSE&W Management Indicator Parameters:

  1. Good House Keeping (GHK)
  2. Use of PPEs
  3. Provision of PPEs
  4. Enforcement of PPEs’ use
  5. Waste management
  6. Waste handling
  7. Installation of Pollution abatement equipment to protect the workforce and preserve the work environment
  8. Installation of Pollution abatement equipment to protect the immediate facility environment
  9. Availability of medical facilities for workers’ health protection
  10. Availability of Contingency plan
  11. Availability of Emergency Response Equipment
  12. HSE policy existence in the facility
  13. Information dissemination and posters provision
  14. Conducting Training for workers
  15. Others
  16. Presentation of some of the facilities’ pictures

Summary of Finding

BIPLAST
BIPLAST is a Plastic production facility situated in Oshodi area of Lagos State. It has been in existence for over ten years. It is jointly owned and operated by expatriates and Nigerians.
UNTL
UNTL is into Textile production and has been operating in Ikorodu area since the early 1960s.
Cybele Cosmetic Ltd. (CCL)
Cybele Cosmetics is into the production of various categories of cosmetic products, ranging from body cream, hair creams shampoo, perfumes. It has been in existence since late 1970s.
EGBIN POWER PLANT
EEPPlc. Is into Electricity generation, it is a subsidiary of the PHCN. The official power generation company in Nigeria.
STRIDES VITRALS NIG. LTD. (SVNL)
SVNL is into pharmaceutical drugs production, product brands include blood tablets and disinfectants.
HONGXING STEEL CO. LTD. (HONGXING)
HONGXING is into steel rod product using metal scraps as raw materials, it is owned by some Chinese business young men and started operation about a Two (2) Years ago.
BLOWFISH Hotel Ltd.
BLOWFISH is a Hospitality facility situated in Victoria Island, with rooms apartment of up to 39 standard rooms. The facility is owned by some Lebanese business men and started opration two years.
NOSTRUM Pharmaceutical Ltd. Ojota
NOSTRUM is pharmaceutical company situated in Ojota, owned by Indian business men and commenced operation less than three years ago. The major products are paracetamol and ferrous sulphate brands.
DCC Telecommunication Ltd.
DCC Telecommunications is into internet service provision for special people like the banks, thus they have access to very confidential documents and must thus be very security conscious. They have been operating for over three years.
Animal Care Services Konsult (Nig.) Ltd.
Animal Care is an Agricultural sector facility that has been in existence since the early 1970s. Some of the company products are eggs, layers chicken, laboratory services to other small farms, fish, feeds and training. They are situated in Ogere area of Ogun State.
Pure-Chemical Production Ltd.
Is a chemical production company owned by foreigners and have been operating since the early 1980s. Some of the company’s products are adhesicve, dry chemical powders, paints and white cements.
ACIC Matress Foam Production Company EAR
ACIC is a foam matress production indegenous company that has been operating since the late 1960s. Various sizes of Matresses are produced as well as pillows and customized foam products according to customer specification and requests.
MANAL Heavy Equipment Company EIS
MANAL is a heavy equipment importation and sales company situated along the Lagos/Ibadan Express way and owned by some Lebanese business men. They commenced operation of the location sometimes last year. The company’s head office is in Ojota, Lagos state.

Statistical Evaluation of the Result of Analysed Reports

The following assumptions were made:
Each considered parameter have 5 as the highest value awarded in each section and 1, 2, 3 and 4 are other values to judge the level of compliance of the facility to the listed parameters.

Table 4 shows the qualitative evaluation of the facilities in terms of levels of compliance to the itemized parameters used to determine the HSE status of the facilities. The facilities will be assigned alphabets for easy analysis and identification.

  1. ≡   BHOJRAJ Ind. Ltd. Lagos, EA 2009
  2. ≡   UNTL, Ikorodu, Lagos 2009 EAR
  3. ≡   CYBELE EAR, Lagos 2009
  4. ≡   EGBIN Power Plant, Lagos, EAR 2009
  5. ≡   STRIDES VITAL NIG. LTD. (SVNL) EA, Ikeja, Lagos 2009
  6. ≡   HONGXING Steel Co. Ltd. Amuwo-odofin, Lagos EA, 2009
  7. ≡   BLOWFISH Hotel Ltd. V.I., Lagos, EA 2010
  8. ≡   NOSTRUM Pharmaceutical Ltd. Ojota, Lagos, EA, 2009
  9. ≡   DCC TELECOMMUNICATION LTD. V.I. Lagos, EA, 2010
  10. ≡   ANIMAL CARE SERVICES KONSULT (NIG.) LTD.  Ogere, Ogun EAR 2010
  11. ≡   PURE-CHEMICAL PRODUCTION LTD., Veepee av. Ogun, EAR, 2010
  12. ≡   ACIC MATRESS FOAM PRODUCTION COMPANY EAR, Abeokuta Ogun, EAR 2010
  13. ≡   MANAL Nig. Ltd. Ogun State EIS

Interpreting Table 3

Given the fact that the maximum total should be 65, only 6 facilities (B, C, D, I & K), (which is less that half of the facilities under review) had total score above the average (62.5). Installation of Pollution abatement equipment to protect the work environment and Availability of medical facilities for workers’ health protection were two parameters that carried highest cumulative total (40), confirming that most facility managers give high priority to personnel welfare. HSE policy existence in the facilities carried the lowest cumulative total (17), meaning that most facility managers do not have within the facility a legally binding document that can be used to hold them liable in court of law or one that can be used as a defence against liability.

Out of the 13 parameters analysed within the 13 facilities under review, six did not have a cumulative total of up to half of the maximum cumulative total level (65).
Table 5 present the total analysis matrix. Charts 1 to 15 present the diagrammatic representation of the tabulated results.

Table 3 · Quantitative Evaluation of the Facilities
Parameters ABCDEFGHIJKLMTotal
1 Good House Keeping (GHK)343241334333339
2 Use of PPEs, Provision and Enforcement333441331242235
3 Waste Management333332333132133
4 Waste Handling423332333122132
5 Installation of Pollution Abatement Equipment to Protect the Work Environment334442323333340
6 Installation of Pollution Abatement Equipment to Protect the Immediate Facility Environment113221223112122
7 Availability of Medical Facilities for Workers’ Health Protection333432334442240
8 Availability of Contingency Plan222322222222227
9 Availability of Emergency Response Equipment333332333333237
10 HSE Policy Existence in the Facility112211131111117
11 Information Dissemination and Posters Provision233311112231124
12 Conducting Training for Workers131321113111120
13 Other Environmental Issues233322113232128
Total31343639342029303426332621390
Table 4 · Summary of Analysed HSE Parameters Findings within Facilities
Parameters Facilities’ Compliance Level Complied Facilities
1Good House Keeping (GHK)11A,B,C,E,G, H,I,J,K,L,M
2Use, Provision and Enforcement of PPEs8A,B,C,D,E,G,H,K
3Waste management9A,B,C,D,E,G,H,I,K
4Waste handling7A,C,D,E,G,H,I
5Installation of Pollution abatement equipment to protect the workforce and preserve the work environment.11A,B,C,D,E,G,I,J,K,L,M
6Installation of Pollution abatement equipment to protect the immediate facility environment.2C,I
7Availability of medical facilities for workers’ health protection10A,B,C,D,E,G,H,I,J,K
8Availability of Contingency plan1D
9Availability of emergency response equipment11A,B,C,D,E,G,H,I,J,K,L
10 HSE policy existence in the facility1H
11Information dissemination and posters provision4B,C,D,K
12Conducting Training for workers3B,D,I
13 Others environmental issues5B,C,D,I,K

The cumulative total of the parameters showed that parameter x (HSE Policy existence in facility) had the lowest cumulative value, while parameters v and vii (Installation of Pollution Abatement Equipment to Protect the Work Environment and Availability of Medical Facilities for Workers’ Health Protection) had the same value, which is the highest cumulative value.

Chart 1 · Number of Facilities’ Compliance Level to Each Parameter
Chart 1

From Chart 1, highest compliance values were recorded for parameters 1, 5 and 9, while lowest were recorded for parameters 8 and 10.

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary

HSE management is a serious issue that must be properly addressed using series of management instruments that will help to alleviate the inherent havoc that the various hazardous compound and conditions exposure are causing or are capable of causing. These impacts can be dangerous to man, animals, plants, monuments and the environment. It usually spread to other nations (trans-boundary locations) to cause all forms of havocs. The prompt mitigation measures put in-place will alleviate most of the negative impact of anthropogenic activities.

In this report, the Environmental Reports of various facilities, chosen at random were assessed, using thirteen (13) existing facilities found within the Lagos and Ogun States metropolis. Thirteen (13) parameters were listed by which these facilities were judged. In addition, some of the pictures taken in the facilities were also presented.

Major benefits from proper management of HSE issues within a facility include; uninterrupted operational activities, optimal gain, eventual reduction of operational costs at the long run, avoidance of facility sanctions by government agencies and better corporate image perception of the company.

Benefits to the nation include; easy domestication of various ratified international treaties, better placement of the nation in the international terrain with reference to implementation of Global HSE issues, improved health of the workforce, workplace and the collective living and working environment within the country.

Using simple random sampling technique for choosing the thirteen (13) environmental assessment reports of the companies, the reports were perused and reviewed. Estimation and descriptive statistics were employed in analysing the data collated from the reports’ review.

Findings showed that using the maximum total score of 65, only 6 facilities (UNTL.(B),  Cybele Cosmetics (C),  EPPlc. (D), SVNL (E), DCC Telecoms (I) & Purechem (K)), (which is less that half of the facilities under review) had total scores above the average (32.5). Installation of pollution abatement equipment to protect the work environment and availability of medical facilities for workers’ health protection were two parameters that carried highest cumulative total fourty (40), when all the values for the facilities were added. HSE policy existence in the facilities carried the lowest cumulative total seventeen (17). Out of the 13 parameters analysed within the 13 facilities under review, six did not have a cumulative total of up to half of the maximum cumulative total level (65).

All these scenarios predicts a possible epidemic in the nearest future which can be promptly and conveniently averted using all the available mitigation measures as have been discussed in chapters one and two of this report as well as recommendations that will be suggested in this chapter. Answers were sought to many questions asked at the beginning of the research.

Conclusions

In conclusion therefore, the following points are enumerated to aid in answering the questions and the objectives of this report.

Due to lack of standard inventory, proper statistical analysis of collated data was difficult.

It can be inferred that most facility managers give high priority to personnel welfare, however, they do not enforce the use of PPEs properly and some facilities do not provide enough PPEs and adequate PPES.

It can be inferred that facility managers do not have a legally binding document within the facility, a legally binding document that can be used to hold them liable in court of law or one that can be used as a defence against liability.

Recommendations

Area of Further Studies

List of further research work that can be undertaken include:

Bibliography

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